Monday, March 27, 2006

The Third Adhaan

As promised, I intend to start posting some previous daroos notes from the Book of Jumu'ah. I hope my tarteeb doesn't confuse people - Insha'Allah I will post 'fresh' notes after dars and for the remainder of the week I will post notes from older daroos in a systematic order. Today, I begin with Hadeeth 509 of the Book of Jumu'ah when Shaykh resumed the study.

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[Lesson 112, Hadeeth 509, Book of Jumuah]

The chapter headings and titles of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) are one of the most important aspects of his work. The ulema say that the fiqh of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) can be gleaned from his chapter headings. Every word has been selected for a reason.

Shaykh mentioned that al Tajrid al Sarih is a complex book and translations are commonly available and people already read these translations and only Allah knows best what they understand. People try and arrive at deductions and conclusions based on these translations from their limited understanding and knowledge. Hence, it is better to learn from the scholars in a traditional manner with a thorough explanation - hence, this is another reason for teaching this book.

With regard to the chapter headings, sometimes they have an obvious connection with the hadeeth and other times it can be ambiguous. With regard to this Chapter heading, "Chapter of Adhaan on Friday", Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) is explaining the method of Adhaan on Friday as well as the history of how this method came about.


Narrated by As-Saib bin Yazid (رضى الله عنه): In the life-time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه) the Adhaan for the Jumu’ah prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman (رضى الله عنه) when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhaan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Madinah" [Hadeeth 509, al Tajrid al Sarih]

Adhaan simply means a 'call to prayer'.

During the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه), the first Adhaan would be when the Imam would arrive and sit on the minbar. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) added a third Adhaan at Az-Zaura, which was a marketplace in Madinah.

This practice of the third Adhaan remains until today.

The Adhaans for Jumu'ah are as follows:

  • First Adhaan – when the time for Jumu’ah begins
  • Second Adhaan – when the imam sits on the minbar
  • Third Adhaan – when the imam descends and the muadhin gives the iqaamah prior to salah

Shaykh explained how the iqaamah is also referred to as an Adhaan in the hadeeth. For example, there is a hadeeth narrated in Bukhari and Muslim that ‘between every two Adhaans is a salah for whoever wishes to pray salah” – when the second Adhaan means iqaamah. The reason why the iqaamah is also called ‘Adhaan’ is because it serves the same purpose and the words are practically the same.

During the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) and Umar (رضى الله عنه) there were only two Adhaans. The first Adhaan on Friday would be when the Imam would be on the minbar and the second when the Imam would descend.

During the time of Uthman (رضى الله عنه), the population of Madinah increased and people began to live further away, and there was some slackness in coming to Jumu’ah. This was over 12 years after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) was the Khalifah for 2 years and Umar (رضى الله عنه) for 10 years. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) instructed an Adhaan to be given at Az-Zaura which was an elevated marketplace (some say it was a building). This Adhaan was 3rd in the chronology of Islam after the two that were already in practice but it was given first. There is another narration of Bukhari that this became the established practice after that time.

The important lesson to be derived from this hadeeth is that we have to be very careful about what we call a bid’ah by using simplistic arguments that a practice was not in place at the time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

There is a hadeeth that Abdullah ibn Umar (رضى الله عنه) called the 3rd Adhaan a bid’ah. Also Hasan al-Basri (رحمة الله عليه) said that the 1st Adhaan is when the Imam sits on the minbar and any Adhaan before this is muhdaf i.e. added on later (an innovation). However, they do not mean a reprehensible bid’ah but an unprecedented practice but favourable and genuine, and acceptable in religion. It is not easy to call something a bid’ah as many laws regulate what is to be called a reprehensible bid’ah. It is narrated that ibn Taimiyah said that for someone to classify something as bid’ah, he has to be an expert in 27 sciences of Islam!

There is a hadeeth that Umar (رضى الله عنه) announced that people have increased in number so I have instructed someone to stand and call people to prayer. I have innovated this because of the excessive number of Muslims.

- this was not an Adhaan but a call or reminder to people to come for salah. Uthman (رضى الله عنه) changed this call to an actual Adhaan, in front of all the companions who were alive – not a single companion objected. However, once when Uthman (رضى الله عنه) as the Khalifah went for Hajj he performed 4 rakaats as a musafir instead of 2. Many sahabah objected and remonstrated with him. However, no one objected when he added the 3rd Adhaan. From that moment till today, throughout history from Muslim Spain to India to China, this remained and remains the practice. This was done with the ijtihad of Uthman (رضى الله عنه) – it was his analogical reasoning and deduction and the other sahabah accepted.

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May Allah allow us to understand and forgive my errors. Please remember my notes cannot do justice to the dars as delivered by Shaykh.

4 comments:

Imran said...

Subhanallah I was blessed with the opportunity of being at that dars. That was the first dars I attended I think, very beneficial being in the presence of 'ulema, which can't be replicated over a broadcast. It was an amazing opportunity, one that I pray Allah SWT continues to afford me. A lot of mashallah beautiful brothers there and a lot of love in the room.

If my memory serves me correctly I think that was the only hadith that was commented on by Shaykh but subhanallah Shaykh was able to raise so many points from a hadith about athan, particularly the one about bid'ah. Amazing.

May Allah preserve our 'ulema. Ameen.

Student of Knowledge said...

Jazakumullahu khairan brother Imran for sharing comments about your first live dars.

Just a quick note - in that dars Shaykh also covered the amazing hadeeth of the miraculous weeping of the tree trunk. Notes to follow soon insha'Allah.

Wasalaam.

Shoeb said...

By Third Adhaan – when the imam descends and the muadhin gives the iqaamah prior to salah, you mean the adhaan IS the iqamaah, right? Just want to be very accurate about this.

JazakAllah.

Student of Knowledge said...

Yes, the third Adhaan is the Iqamaah but in the hadeeth "the third adhaan" refers to the adhaan introduced at Az-zaurah and is third in terms of the chronology of when it was introduced in Islam.

The Adhaans for Jumu'ah are as follows:

First Adhaan – when the time for Jumu’ah begins
Second Adhaan – when the imam sits on the minbar
Third Adhaan – when the imam descends and the muadhin gives the iqaamah prior to salah