Friday, January 19, 2007

Kitab Sujood il-Qur'an wa Sunnah (كتابُ سجود القراَن وسنتها) notes

Assalamu alaikum, notes for Kitab Sujood il-Qur'an wa Sunnah are below. Jazakumullahu khairan my beloved brother, Abu Talha for providing taking the notes and typing them up. May Allah keep him steadfast. Please remember Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq in your du'as too. May Allah preserve the Shaykh and increase him in knowledge. These notes are from Lessons 138 onwards available from Al Kawthar Academy (www.akacademy.eu)

Kitab Sujood il-Qur'an wa Sunnah (كتابُ سجود القراَن وسنتها)

Book 17: The Book of the Prostration of the Qur’an and its Method

569. عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَرَأَ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم النّجْمَ بِمَكّةَ, فَسَجَدَ فِيهَا وَسَجَدَ مَنْ مَعَهُ غَيْرَ شَيْخٍ, أَخَذَ كَفّا مِنْ حَصًى, أَوْ تُرابٍ, فَرَفَعَهُ إِلَى جَبْهَتِهِ, وَقَالَ: يَكْفِينِي هذَا, فَرَأَيْتُهُ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ قُتِلَ كافِرًا. رواه البخاري: 1067

[Hadeeth 569, al Tajrid al Sarih]

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud رضى الله عنه : The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم recited Surah An Najm (No. 53) at Makkah and prostrated while reciting it and those who were with him did the same except an old man who took a handful of small stones or earth and lifted it to his forehead and said, This is sufficient for me. Later on, I saw him killed as a disbeliever.

باب: مَا جَاءَ فِي سُجُودِ القُراَن وسُنَتهَا

CHAPTER 1. Prostration during the recitation of the Qur'ân and its method.

The incident mentioned in this Hadeeth occurred five years after Prophethood and it was the stage at which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was proclaiming the message of Islam openly. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم publicly recited the Qur’an in Makkah and the people gathered to hear his recitation of this particular Surah which had just been revealed and in its final prostration where the command of prostration is mentioned all the people, believers and disbelievers (mushrikeen), prostrated. It s reported that even the jinn prostrated!

The question arising is that - why did the mushrikeen prostrate? The reality is that despite their disbelief, because of the beauty of the Qur’an, they were compelled to prostrate. They were questioned by other mushrikeen who were not present during this incident but head heard about it. Their answer was that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس) praised our Gods too so we felt compelled to prostrate. This was in fact incorrect.

The old man that is mentioned in the Hadeeth is Umayad ibn Khalaf and the Hadeeth refers to his arrogance in not prostrating. Imam Bukhari mentions old in the context of seniority and rank rather than age. Ibn Mas’ud (رضى الله عنه) points thus out by stating he died as a disbeliever in the Battle of Badr, ten years later. Imam Nasai narrates a Hadeeth from another from another individual who was present during the incident but did not prostrate. However, this individual became a Muslim.



Interestingly, Imam Bukhari
(رحمة الله عليه) mentions this incident at the beginning of his book even though there are verses of the Qur’an before Surah Najm that have Sajdah of Tilaawat in them. The reason why this Hadeeth is mentioned at the beginning of the book is because Imam Bukhari is telling the reader when the first Sajdah of tilawat occurred. Chronologically, Surah An Najm was the first Sajdah of Tilaawat.

باب: سَجْدَةُ (ص)

Chapter 2 - To prostrate while reciting Sârat Sâd (No. 38).

570. عَنِ ابْنِ عَبّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: ص . لَيْست مِنْ عَزَائِمِ السّجُودِ, وَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْجُدُ فِيهَا. رواه البخاري: 1069

[Hadeeth 570, al Tajrid al Sarih]

The Ulema differ regarding the number of Sajda in the Qur’an. See the table below.


Imam Abu Hanifah

Imam Malik

Imam Shafi

Imam Ahmad

Reciter

Wajib

Sunnah

Sunnah Muakkadah

Sunnah Muakkadah

Listener (intentional)

Wajib

Sunnah (conditional)

Sunnah Muakkadah

Sunnah Muakkadah (conditional)

Hearer (non intentional)

Wajib

Not Sunnah

Sunnah

Not Sunnah

Recording

Not Sunnah

Not Sunnah

Not Sunnah

Not Sunnah

Surah Ar Raf

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Ar Rad

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Sura Nahl

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Bani Israel

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Maryam

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Hajj 1st

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Hajj 2nd

X

X

Yes

Yes

Surah Furqan

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Naml

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Sajda

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Sad

Yes

Yes

X

X

Surah Fussilat

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Surah Najm

Yes

X

Yes

Yes

Surah Inshiqaaq

Yes

X

Yes

Yes

Surah Alaq

Yes

X

Yes

Yes

According to the table, we can see that Imam Abu Hanifah’s (رحمة الله عليه) opinion is that there are 14 Sajdahs of Tilaawat in the Qur’an. This is also the opinion of Imam Shafi and Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (رحمة الله عليه). Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) believes there are 11 Sajdahs. Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) believes there is no sajdah in the last three Surahs however he does not believe they are impermissible. He simply does not regard them as being Sunnah the reason being that his verdict is based on the practice and verdicts of the people of Madinah.

Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) inserts Hadeeth no. 570 in his book indicating that he agrees with the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah (رحمة الله عليه) and Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) in that there is a sajdah in Surah Sad. However, those who are say there is not a sajdah in Surah sad use the first part of the Hadeeth as their argument. And those who argue there is a sajdah use the latter part.

باب: سُجُودُ المُسْلِمِينَ مَعَ المُشرِكِينَ وَالمُشْرِكُ نَجَسٌ لَيسَ لَهُ وُضُوء

Chapter 3. The prostration of Muslims along with Al Mushrikân and a Mushrik is Najasun (impure) and does not perform ablution

571. وحديثه رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا: أنّ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم سَجَدَ بِالنّجْمِ, تقدّم قريبًا من رواية ابن مسعودٍ وزاد في هذه الرواية: وَسَجَدَ مَعَهُ المُسْلِمُونَ وَالمُشْرِكُونَ, وَالْجِنّ وَالإِنْسُ. رواه البخاري: 1071

571. Narrated Ibn 'Abbâs (رضى الله عنه): The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prostrated while reciting Surah (No. 53) AnNajm. (See Hadeeth No. 569 narrated by Ibn Mas'ud) with an addition in this quotation: And with him prostrated the Muslims, the Mushrikun, the jinns, and the mankind. (2:177O.B.)

[Hadeeth 571, al Tajrid al Sarih]

In the original version of the Saheeh of Imam Bukhari, there is a Hadeeth of Ibn Umar (رضى الله عنه) which indicates that he would prostrate without wudhu when doing a sajdah of tilaawat. It is important to note that this Hadeeth is mu’allaq (the suspended, a weak narration) a Hadeeth without a chain of narration. Many people believe Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) tries to prove that you can do a sajdah without wudhu. This is not true. He is trying to indicate the urgency of a Sajdah Tilaawat by mentioning the Hadeeth and the Mu’allaq narration. He expressed this urgency by stating the kuffar in this Hadeeth prostrated with spontaneity.

Ibn Umar (رضى الله عنه) would be reciting Qur’an by heart and would not be in a state of wudhu. Due to the urgency, even if not in a state of wudhu he would do Sajdah. Imam Bayhaqi (رحمة الله عليه) narrates in his Sunan that Ibn Umar (رضى الله عنه) said one should do Sajda tilaawat in a state of wudhu. All four Imams agree that having wudhu is a prerequisite for Sajdah of tilaawat. Also, the impurty mentioned about the disbelievers is a ritual impurity and highlights this principle that an individual can be clean but not pure. And vice versa that an individual could be pure but not clean. It also relates to spiritual as well as physical purity.


باب: مَنْ قَرَأَ السّجْدَةَ وَلَم يَسْجُد

Chapter 4. Whoever recited the Verses of prostration and did not prostrate.

572. عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ: أَنّهُ قَرَأَ عَلَى النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم: (وَالنّجْمِ). فَلَمْ يَسْجُدْ فِيهَا. رواه البخاري: 1073

572. Narrated Zaid bin Thâbit (رضى الله عنه) : I recited Surah (No. 53) An Najm before the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس) , yet he did not perform a prostration. (2:179O.B.)

[Hadeeth 572, al Tajrid al Sarih]

This Hadeeth mentions the fact that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس) heard Surah an Najm but did not prostrate. Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) states there is no sajdah in Surah Najm but according to the other Imams there is a sajdah. Some scholars give the opinion that there may have been extenuating circumstances why the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس) did not perform sajdah e.g. state of impurity and it may have been performed at a later stage.

باب: سَجْدَةُ (إذَا السّمَاءُ انْشَقّت)

CHAPTER 5. Prostration while reciting IdhasSama'unShaqqat. (Sârah No. 84).

573. عن أَبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أَنّه قَرَأ: (إِذَا السّمَاءُ انْشَقّتْ). فَسَجَدَ بِهَا. فقيل له في ذلك: قَالَ: لَوْ لَمْ أَرَ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْجُدُ لَمْ أَسْجُدْ. رواه البخاري: 1074

573. (Narrated Abu Salma): I saw Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه)ه reciting IdhasSama' unShaqqat and he prostrated during its recitation. Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه), was asked about it (prostrating), (Abu Huraira) said, Had I not seen the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prostrating, I would not have prostrated. (2:180O.B.)

[Hadeeth 573, al Tajrid al Sarih]

Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) states this Hadeeth to prove there is a sajdah in this Surah.

باب: مَنْ لَمْ يَجِد مَوْضِعاً لِلسُجُودِ مِنَ الزّحَام

Chapter 6. Whoever does not find a place for prostration (with the Imâm) because of overcrowding.


574. عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: كانَ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقْرَأُ عَلَيْنَا السّورَةَ فِيهَا السّجْدَةُ, فَيَسْجُدُ وَنَسْجُدُ, حَتّى مَا يَجِدُ أَحَدُنَا مكانًا لمَوْضِعِ جَبْهَتِهِ. رواه البخاري: 1079

574. Narrated Ibn 'Umar رضى الله عنهما : Whenever the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم recited the Surah in which there was a prostration he would prostrate and then, we, too, would prostrate and some of us used not to find a place for prostration. (2:185O.B.)

[Hadeeth 574, al Tajrid al Sarih]

This Hadeeth indicates, firstly that how closely the sahabah would sit with another during the dars of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس). When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وس) would recite a verse of the Qur’an with sajdah tilaawat the sahabah (رضى الله عنهم) would still prostrate but due to their closeness with another – in a different manner. They would do sajdah on the back of the person in front of them. The same ruling applies if one cannot find space to do sajdah in Salah due to overcrowding.

Methodology of reciting verses with sajdah tilaawat

All the Imams agree that it is not desirable to read a surah with sajdah tilaawat in salah except in the Fajr Salah of Friday where Surah-tul-Sajdah is recommend. However, Imam Malik (رحمة الله عليه) departs from the view of the other three Imams and states it is Makruh – even on Friday. The reason for this undesirability is the potential for confusion amongst the congregation. For this same reason, if an Imam makes a mistake in Eid or Jumaah Salah there is no Sajdah Sahw.

The table below sets out the method of prostrating according to the four different schools


Imam Abu Hanifah

Imam Malik

Imam Shafi

Imam Ahmad


Wudhu

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Standing

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Sitting

Yes

Yes

X

Yes


Takbir Ihram

X

X

Yes

X


Dua of sajdah

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Tahashud and Salaam

X

X

Yes

Yes


2 comments:

Hamza Isa said...

salam,

great site man, may Allah reward you you!

i have lost your email so i cannot contact you. i am willing to help with site inshallah.

in the meantime, here is my email and blog

hamzaindeen@hotmail.com

http://hamzaisa.blogspot.com/

as requested

salam

Hamza Isa

mujahid7ia said...

Jazak Allah khayr
great resource
These lectures are awesome; I listen on Paltalk.