Friday, February 29, 2008

Book of Zakah

Alhamdulillah, Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq completed commentary of the Book of Funerals (كتابُ الجَنائز ) on 15th February 2008. This was Lesson 184 of the series. The Shaykh started commentary of the Book of Zakah (كتابُ الزكَاة) on 22nd February with hadeeth 702. In this lesson, we learnt that linguistically the word zakah means to flourish e.g. it can be used in the context of plants, vegetation and crops which grow and flourish and also means to purify. This is just a taster of Lesson 185 and the beginning of the Book of Zakah - I will post my notes after I've uploaded the rest of my notes from the Book of Funerals. I recommend that you should all listen to the lessson, either from the podcast or from the Al Kawthar webshop (mp3 file for £2 GBP).

Please remember me in your duas, and pray for the Shaykh and all at Al Kawthar Academy.

Finally, Al Kawthar Academy are still in need of donations. I have set up a new fundraising page - see sidebar widget. Please donate generously and assist the work of deen.


hadeeth, al tajrid al sarih, bukhari

The Mercy of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

Assalamu alaikum,

I hope you are all in the best of health and iman. I know that I'm many months behind with the daroos notes but I'm trying to now post in order, so I will not post some of the latest notes (I have already typed up) till I catch up on the older lessons. Please continue to pray that Allah puts barakah in my time and gives me the tawfeeq to keep up with this.

I recently posted some notes from Lesson 168 (31st August 2007) from the Book of Funerals -

Below are the rest of the notes from this lesson.


Hadeeth 645 from al Tajrid al Sarih continued:

In the city of Madinah, the hypocrites were responsible for spreading the false rumour against Aishah (رضى الله عنها). The city of Madinah was lit on fire with this rumour, and many people were taken in by this rumour after failing to ascertain the truth. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) even contemplating divorcing Aishah (رضى الله عنها). Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul was the chief instigator of this rumour. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) entered the masjid and stood on the minbar and said ‘Who will relieve me of my suffering?’ He said that this man has hurt me and hurt my companions. One of the muhajiroon responded by saying to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that tell us who it is, command us, and we will deal with him, if he is one of us we will execute him and if he is one of the ansaar we will execute him too. Having heard this, one of the ansaar stood up and said by Allah how can you say you will execute him if he is one of the ansaar. Then one of the Muhajiroon stood up and said how dare you say that – you are one of the hypocrites defending the hypocrites. This led to the Muhajiroon and the Ansaar standing up and drawing their swords. They were about to face each other with swords in the Masjid of Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) tried to calm them down from the minbar. Eventually, they listened to him and sat down. All this fitnah was orchestrated by Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) agonised for a whole month. Aishah (رضى الله عنها) also describes in a hadeeth of Bukhari how she could not eat or sleep for a whole month. A month later, Allah revealed verses of Surah Noor. Indeed those who produced the great lie amongst you, it was a group of you… .for each man there is a share of the sin that he has earned and as for the one who assumed the major role in this, for him is the great punishment’. Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul is being referred to in this verse i.e. the one who played a major role (Surah Noor, Verse 11).

One of those taken in by the rumours was the nephew of Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) (second cousin of Aishah (رضى الله عنها), Mistah). He had remained in Madinah under the expenditure of Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه). Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) was shocked that Mistah had been involved in spreading the rumour. Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) vowed never to spend another dihram on him till the day he dies. A verse of the Quran was revealed:

Let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah.s cause: let them forgive and overlook, do you not wish that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surah Noor, Verse 22).

This verse does not mention Mistah of Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) by name, but that those of grace should not take an oath to help poor family members who has emigrants. When Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه) heard this verse, he wept and retracted his previous and said by Allah ‘I will never withhold another dihram from him till the day I day’ and said ‘ I would love to see that Allah forgives me my sins’.

When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) returned from the battle of Tabuk in the 9th year of hijrah, Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul had fallen seriously ill. He was one of those that stayed behind in Madinah, being the leader of the hypocrites. Allah exposed those hypocrites that didn’t participate in Surah Taubah.

Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul tried to destroy the Muslim community and the household of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). But, despite everything, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) went to visit him when he was ill. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did rebuke him and said, I told you not to side with the Jews of Madinah. Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul responded by saying ‘Oh Prophet of Allah. This is not the time to rebuke me. I am on my deathbed. I ask you to give me your shirt when I die, pray over me and seek Allah’s forgiveness for me’. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) left, and then Abdullah ibn Salul’s son (who was a pious, upright Muslim) came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He asked that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) grant him his shirt as a shroud for his father and to pray over him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said to him that I will give you my shirt.

When Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul died, his family took him and began the burial proceedings. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was informed and as he was being lowered into the grave, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) asked them to raise him. He took off his shirt and placed it on the body as his shroud. He then blew on him, and then prayed over him. No one spoke except Umar ibn Khattab (رضى الله عنه) and said ‘Oh Prophet of Allah. Has not Allah not prevented you from praying over the hypocrites?’ He reminded the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) of all the things that Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul and said and done. In response, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) merely smiled and said ‘Move back, oh Umar. Allah has given me a choice – seek forgiveness for them or do not seek forgiveness for him. If I knew Allah would forgive him after seeking forgiveness 71 times I would do so’ The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) smiled because he could understand Umar’s (رضى الله عنه) passion and anger but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was on a different level. He felt he had a choice. After this, Allah revealed verses of Surah Taubah.

Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion. (Surah Taubah, Verse 84).

After this, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) never prayed over any of the hypocrites. Umar (رضى الله عنه) was not judgemental but because Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul was the leader of the hypocrites he felt confident that Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul was a munafiq. Allah had told Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) some of the names of the hypocrites. The only companion that knew these names was Hudaifah bin al Yaman (رضى الله عنه), the keeper of the secrets of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).He knew the names of 17 hypocrites. When any Muslims jinazah would arrive, Umar would watch to see if Hudaifah bin al Yaman (رضى الله عنه) attended the funeral or not. He would only attend if Hudaifah bin al Yaman (رضى الله عنه) attended.

The lesson that the Shaykh derived from this hadeeth is the mercy and compassion of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and Abu Bakr (رضى الله عنه), and how we should learn to forgive others in this spirit.

646. عَنْ جَابِرٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: أَتَى النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ أُبَيّ بَعْدَ ما دُفِنَ, فَأَخْرَجَهُ, فَنَفَثَ فِيهِ مِنْ رِيقِهِ, وَأَلْبَسَهُ قَمِيصَهُ. رواه البخاري: 1270

646. Narrated Jabir رضى الله عنه : The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to (the grave of) 'Abdullâh bin UbaI after his body was buried. The body was brought out and then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم put his saliva over the body and clothed it in his shirt. (2:360O.B.)

The full chapter heading is “Chapter of the shroud of the shirt whether it is sown or not” Iman Bukhari is trying to explain that the desirable shroud is one without a shirt but it is still permissible to bury someone in normal clothes, whether its just an upper garment of even a sown shirt with buttons etc. this is evident because the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) took off his shirt which had buttons – the shirt of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had buttons.

The Shaykh explained that the Prophet would sometimes have his shirt buttons opened, and it is for this reason that some of the sahabah also kept their buttons opened e.g. Muawiyah (رضى الله عنه) and Abdullah Ibn Abbass (رضى الله عنه).

Thursday, February 14, 2008

Punishment of the Grave

Assalamu alaikum. Below is a video excerpt from Lesson 182 of the commentary of al Tajrid al Sarih (The Abridged Saheeh al Bukhari) by Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq

This talk was delivered on Friday 1st February 2008.

Monday, February 04, 2008

Sunday, February 03, 2008

Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul (King of Hypocrites) and Zayd ibn Arqam (Young Child)

Lesson 168 – Book of Funerals was delivered on 31st August 2007.

باب: الكَفَنُ لِلمَيّت

Ch. 10 - The shroud for a dead body.

These are detailed notes from part of the lesson taught by Shaykh Riyadh ul Haq where he commented on Hadeeth 645.

This is an incomplete chapter heading. The full chapter heading in the original Saheeh of Imam Bukhari is ‘Chapter of the shroud being of a shirt which is sown or unsown and chapter of one who is buried without a shirt’. The chapter heading given in al tajrid al Sarih doesn’t correspond in any way with the original.

645. عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا:

أَنّ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ أُبَيّ لَمّا تُوُفّيَ, جَاءَ ابْنُهُ إِلَى النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ, أَعْطِنِي قَمِيصَكَ أُكَفّنْهُ فِيهِ, وَصَلّ عَلَيْهِ, وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُ. فَأَعْطَاهُ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَمِيصَهُ, فَقَالَ: (اَذِنِي أُصَلّي عَلَيْهِ). فَاَذَنَهُ, فَلَمّا أَرَادَ أَنْ يُصَلّيَ عَلَيْهِ جَذَبَهُ عُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ, فَقَالَ: أَلَيْسَ اللهُ نَهَاكَ أَنْ تُصَلّيَ عَلَى المُنَافِقِينَ فَقَالَ: (أَنَا بَيْنَ خِيرَتَيْنَ, قَالَ: (اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لاَ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرّةً فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللهُ لَهُمْ)). فَصَلّى عَلَيْهِ, فَنَزَلَتْ: (ولاَ تُصَلّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ ماتَ أَبَدًا). رواه البخاري: 1269

645. Narrated Ibn 'Umar رضى الله عنهما : When 'Abdullâh bin Ubay (the chief of hypocrites) died, his son came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and said, O Allâh's Messenger, please give me your shirt to shroud him in it, offer his funeral prayer and ask for Allâh's Forgiveness for him. So Allâh's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم gave his shirt to him and said, Inform me (when the funeral is ready) so that I may offer the funeral prayer. So, he informed him and when the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم intended to offer the funeral prayer, 'Umar رضى الله عنه took hold of his hand and said, Has Allâh not forbidden you to offer the funeral prayer for the hypocrites? The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, I have been given the choice, for Allâh تعالى says: 'Whether you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم ) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites), or ask not forgiveness for them ...., (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness .... Allâh will not forgive them.' (V.9:80) So the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم offered the funeral prayer and on that the revelation came: And never (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (i.e. hypocrites) who dies. (V.9:84). (2:359O.B.)

Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq translated this hadeeth and then elaborated further upon the literal translated.

Who was Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul? He was one of the famous persons from the tribe of Khazraj and his full name was Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul. Salul was the name of his grandmother which is unusual as normally male names are used by Arabs when described as ‘son of…’. He was the leader of Khazraj and was about to be crowned the king of Madinah before the arrival of the Muslims. However, many of the people of the tribe embraced Islam when Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) arrived and he was no longer suitable to rule over the kingdom of Madinah. He was extremely eloquent and very articulate and forceful. He was a very imposing personality and considered to be very handsome. He was tall and broadly built. He was also charming, captivating and of a sweet tongue. He was a natural leader. When the Muslims arrived in Madinah he felt he was robbed of his position, throne and crown. He held great enmity against Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) but because many of his tribe had embraced Islam he felt that the best option would be to embrace Islam and go with the flow. However, he continued to oppose Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and undermine his authority. He never missed any opportunity to try and harm Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and the Muslims. However, when anyone would confront him, he would switch on his charm and say ‘I’m a Muslim’. He would pray salah in the Masjid and sit in the gatherings of Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Thus, everyone treated him as a Muslim. He became a natural leader and spearhead of the new movement of hypocrisy. There were four different groups in Madinah; Muslims, a number of Arabs who were still non-believers (but they made their disbelief clear), a large Jewish community and fourthly the hypocrites. There is an extensive mention of the hypocrites in the Madani Surats of the Qur’an. The hypocrites were a lethal group and we can understand this by looking at the beginning of Surah Baqarah for example where Allah praises the believers in 2-3 verses, then mentions the disbelievers in a couple of verses and then there is a large section where Allah mentions the hypocrites. The simple reason for this is because the believers are honest in their belief and the disbelievers are honest in their disbelief. In contrast, the hypocrites are extremely dangerous and deluded. Allah says that they attempt to deceive Allah and the believers but they are not deceiving anyone but themselves. In their delusion, they think they are getting away with everything by fooling the people and even think that they are deceiving Allah.

The Muslims had innumerable problems with the hypocrites. For example, during the battle of Uhud, Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had instructed everyone to march towards the outskirts of Madinah on a plain under Mount Uhud. The Muslims were going to battle against an army of 3000.

A thousand people travelled from Madinah, from the centre of the city towards the outskirts, towards Uhud in the morning. Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul was in charge of a large contingent; a very large group. At the very last minute he turned away, just before Uhud, and came back and returned to Madinah with 300 of men. So, the Muslims who had originally set off with a 1000 men to fight a well-prepared enemy of 3000 were now left with just 700 men. This was due to the betrayal of Abdullah ibn Ubay who convinced 300 of the army to turn back and return to Madinah. And after the battle of Uhud, the hypocrites made excuse after excuse. Despite this, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) tolerated them and humoured them but they left no stone unturned.

In the campaign of Banu Al-Mustaliq Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had travelled. Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul was sitting with his cronies in his tent where the Muslims had camped on route on their way back to Madinah. One of the Muhajir companions and was drawing water from a well and there was someone from Madinah at the same well also drawing water. He was a colleague and an ally of Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul. These two ended up arguing with each other; the one from Madinah and the one from Makkah, the Muhajir. The situation was diffused but Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul heard about this altercation between the Muhajir companion and his ally. He was sitting in his tent with his cronies and when he heard about the argument and he spoke out, as usual, against the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Allah says in Surah Baqarah speaking about the hypocrites, that when they meet the believers they say we have believed with you and when they are in solitude with their devils they say we are with you.

When the believers would hear that the hypocrites spoke out in this manner, they would say to them that you say that you are believers, you sit with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), you speak to him, you say La illah illallah, you say ashadu al la illah illAllah, you attest to the faith, you proclaim the testimony of faith. They would respond by saying we are only joking. Allah says in the Quran ‘Allah humours them’.

After this incident at the well Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul said to his cronies I’ve always said to you that these emigrants from Makkah, their example is like that of the Arab saying and then he quoted a famous Arabic phrase; an Arabic saying that feed your dog, one day it shall eat you. You know, you continue to feed your dog, make it grow large, huge, strong, and ferocious and one day your dog will pounce on you and devour you. So, continue to feed your dog and one day it will devour you. Fatten your dog and it will devour you. He said, our example and the example of these emigrants from Makkah is that of this phrase, that we feed them, we look after them, we sheltered them, we took them in, we accommodated them, we received them when they fled Makkah, and now they rule over us, by Allah, these emigrants from Makkah, the only way they can reside in Madinah the way they do is because of your generosity towards them, your expenditure on them, the moment you withhold your funds, the moment you stop your expenditure, the moment you stop accommodating them, and showing such hospitality to them they will flee from Madinah. In anger he was saying more and more and continued by saying you know what when we shall return to Madinah, you watch what I will do, he said the honoured one will expel the base one, the humiliated, disgraced one from Madinah. And what he meant was that he was the honoured leader of Madinah whereas Muhammad ibn Abdullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the one who has usurped his authority and claimed his crown, thus in his eyes he was the disgraced, humiliated base one.

Along with his cronies, a young child called Zayd ibn Arqam was also seating in the tent. Zayd ibn Arqam heard these words but the others didn’t think much of him being there as his was so young. So all the hypocrites felt safe and carried on abusing the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and the Sahabah. Zayd ibn Arqam went and told the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about what the hypocrites and said. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was extremely hurt. Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) didn’t summon Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul but when word spread through the camp and Abdullah Ibn Ubay heard that this young child has gone and revealed our secret conversation, he came himself, as usual, and switching on his charm. The hypocrites lie effortlessly, to them lying is as easy as breathing, as natural as breathing, with every inhalation they lie, with every exhalation they lie, each time they inhale they lie, each time they exhale they lie, it’s natural and part of their character. This is why the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said in a number of ahadith that the sign of a hypocrite is that when he speaks, he lies. So Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul came and he began offering his excuses and saying to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that Zayd ibn Arqam is just a child, what does he know whereas ‘Ya Rasulullah, I am your humble servant, I follow you, I obey you’ etc etc. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) remained silent. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) never replied with anything and thus it seemed Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) accepted what Abdullah ibn Ubay was saying at face value. Not only Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul but even some of the sincere Sahabah said Ya Rasulullah here we have the word of a child, Zayd ibn Arqam, and on the other hand we have the leader of Khazraj, Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul; a man of standing, intelligence, a leader, an eloquent individual, a man of dignity and honour and standing in the community. So, how can we take the word of Zayd ibn Arqam. It’s unbelievable that he would say something like this. Zayd ibn Arqam said that when my testimony was rejected I could not show my face thinking that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) thinks that I lied or I fear that he may think that I am lying, thus what does everyone else think of me? Zayd ibn Arqam retreated with tears.

No sooner had Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul had spoken to Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and departed, Jibril (عليه السلام) came with verses of the Qur’an. Allah says, when the hypocrites come to you they say we surely testify that indeed you are the messenger of Allah, Allah knows that you are His messenger and Allah testifies that they are liars.

These verses of the Qur’an exonerated Zayd ibn Arqam and exposed Abdullah ibn Ubay Salul.