Sunday, June 29, 2008

Oh Man! Prepare your Provisions of Taqwa

Assalamu alaikum, below are my notes for Lesson 175 of al Tajrid al Sarih (The Abridged Saheeh al-Bukhari) by Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq. Hadeeth 665-669 were covered and the lesson was given on Friday 30th November 2007.

Please keep me in your du'as and of course the Shaykh and everyone at Al Kawthar Academy who allow us to benefit from the daroos. The full lesson is available from the podcast which has a new domain -


Chapter of standing for the funeral.

665. عَنْ عَامِرِ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ, عَنِ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: (إِذَا رَأَى أَحَدُكُمْ جَنَازَةً, فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَاشِيًا مَعَهَا فَلْيَقُمْ حَتّى يُخَلّفَهَا, أَوْ تُخَلّفَهُ, أَوْ تُوضَعَ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تُخَلّفَهُ). رواه البخاري: 1308

665. Narrated 'Amir bin Rabi'a رضى الله عنه : The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, If anyone of you see a funeral procession and he is not going along with it, then he should stand and remain standing till he gets behind it, or it leaves him behind, or the coffin is put down before it goes ahead of him. (2:395O.B.)

The Prophet said that when one of you sees a funeral as a passer-by, the person should stand.till:

Till the funeral departs

He departs and leaves the funeral

Until the coffin is put on the ground

All of the scholars of fiqh agree that this instruction of Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) no longer applies. Some believe that this practice was abandoned by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and the evidence comes from a hadeeth narrated by Imam Malik in his muwatta and Imam Muslim in his saheeh as well as many other authors from Ali (رضى الله عنه) that the sahabah were instructed not to stand by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

The ruling for a person who is seated and a funeral passes by which he was not intending to participate in are as follows:

Hanafi school of fiqh – a person shouldn’t stand if a funeral passes by and

Maliki – makrooh

Sahafi – not recommended

Hanbali –makooh

باب: مَتَى يَقعُدُ إِذَا قَامَ لِلجَنَازَة

CHAPTER 27. When should one sit after standing for the funeral procession?

666. عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أَنّه أَخذ بيد مروانَ وهما في جنازة, فَجَلَسَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تُوضَعَ, فَجَاءَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ, فَأَخَذَ بِيَدِ مَرْوَانَ, فَقَالَ: قُمْ, فَوَاللهِ لَقَدْ عَلِمَ هذَا أَنّ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَانَا عَنْ ذلِكَ, فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ: صَدَقَ. رواه البخاري: 1309

666. (Narrated Sa'id Al Maqburi that his father said : While we were accompanying a funeral procession). Abu Huraira رضى الله عنه got hold of the hand of Marwân and they sat down before the coffin was put down. Then Abu Sa'id came and took hold of Marwân's hand and said, Get up. By Allâh, no doubt this (i.e. Abu Huraira) knows that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade us to do that. Abu Huraira said, He (Abu Sa'id) has spoken the truth. (2:396O.B.)

This hadeeth refers to an incident after the time of Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Marwan was the governor of Madinah but was not a sahabi. Marwan was at a funeral and Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه) took Marwan’s hand and sat down with him, this was before the body and been lowered into the grave. Abu Sa'id (رضى الله عنه) then came and took Marwan’s hand and told him to rise as he said that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has forbidden this i.e. to sit when a funeral is present. Abu Huraira (رضى الله عنه) confirmed that this was the case.

Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq said that Allah knows best why Abu Hurairah (رضى الله عنه) sat down with Marwan for he must have had his reason. It is highly unlikely that this was due to forgetfulness. He disregarded his own reason for sitting down and did not contest Abu Said (رضى الله عنه).


If someone is seated and a funeral passes by but that person is not a participant in the funeral – this was covered previously.

If someone is seated and a funeral arrives and the person intends to participate in the funeral – according to all the scholars he should rise.

Third type of standing is to remain standing i.e. a person participates in the funeral, he prays salat-ul-jinazah and then proceeds to the graveyard for the burial. When should the person sit down if they want wish to? One should not sit down in any funeral until the funeral has been placed on the ground. Of course the ruling is different if there is a necessity. The specific rulings are as follows:

According to the scholars of the Hanafi fiqh, one shouldn’t sit down until the funeral is placed on the ground and if one does then it is makrooh;

According to the Maliki school of fiqh it is permissible;

According to the Shafi school of fiqh it is not recommended;

According to the Hanbali school of fiqh it is makrooh.

باب: مَنْ قَامَ لِجَنَازَةِ يَهُودِي

Chapter 28 - Chapter of one who stood up for the funeral of a Jew.

667. عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: مَرّ بِنَا جَنَازَةٌ, فَقَامَ لَهَا النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَقُمْنَا لَهُ, فَقُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ, إِنّهَا جَنَازَةُ يَهُودِيّ قَالَ: (إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ الْجَنَازَةَ فَقُومُوا). رواه البخاري: 1311

667. Narrated Jâbir bin 'Abdullah رضى الله عنهما : A funeral procession passed in front of us and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم stood up and we too stood up. We said, O Allâh's Messenger, this is the funeral procession of a Jew. He said, Whenever you see a funeral procession, you should stand up. (2:398O.B.)

Hadeeth 667 - All the scholars of fiqh agree that this ruling has been abrogated and they have differing views as to whether it is makrooh, not recommended etc but they all agree that one shouldn’t stand. The question is why did the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) stand for this funeral? Firstly, he did not know it was the jinazah of a non-Muslim when he first stood up. According to some other narrations of the hadeeth, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said ‘Is it not a soul? When you see a funeral, rise’ when someone said to him this was the funeral of a Jew. Was the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) standing out of respect for the funeral or was it for other reasons? There is another narration of the hadeeth where the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said the words ‘Death is fright’ i.e. this should remind you of death. Thus, one shouldn’t be casual when a funeral passes. As far as this particular incident is concerned, in some narrations is mentioned that if someone asked that if a funeral of a non-Muslim passes by should one stand for it. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said yes because one stands not for the funeral but for the one that takes the soul i.e. for Allah and for the sake of the Angels.

Why did the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) stand on that occasion? This was practiced in the Jewish tradition. It is narrated by Imam Tahawiya that Ali saw a group of people standing for the funeral for a Muslim. Ali (رضى الله عنه) said the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did that once for the sake of acting upon the Jewish tradition before Allah had revealed a law about that practice. Once Allah had revealed a law, he abandoned that practice and he sat down.

Thus, regardless of these ahadeeth and according to all the schools of fiqh, we do not stand for a funeral because these laws have been abrogated. The only exception is one is waiting for a funeral and wish to participate in it.

باب: حَمْلُ الرّجالِ الجَنَازَةَ دُونَ النّساء

Chapter of men carrying the funeral other than women

668. عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الخُدْرِيّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ: أَنّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: (إِذَا وُضِعَتِ الْجَنَازَةُ, وَاحْتَمَلَهَا الرّجَالُ عَلَى أَعْنَاقِهِمْ, فَإِنْ كانَتْ صَالِحَةً قَالَتْ: قَدّمُونِي, وَإِنْ كَانَتْ غَيْرَ صَالِحَةٍ قَالَتْ: يَا وَيْلَهَا, أَيْنَ يَذْهَبُونَ بِهَا, يَسْمَعُ صَوْتَهَا كُلّ شَيْءٍ إِلاّ الإِنْسَان, وَلَوْ سَمِعَهُ صَعِقَ). رواه البخاري:

668. Narrated Abu Sa'id Al Khudri رضى الله عنه : Allâh's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said, When the funeral is ready and the men carry it on their shoulders, if the deceased was righteous it will say, 'Present me (hurriedly),' and if he was not righteous, it will say, 'Woe to it (me)! Where are they taking it (me)?' Its voice is heard by everything except mankind and if he heard it he would fall unconscious. (2:400O.B.)

When the deceased is placed upon the board or in the coffin that is carried by men to the coffin, then the deceased person actually speaks. If the person was pious, he says ‘Send me ahead’ and if the person was not pious he says ‘Woe be unto it’ Where are you taking it’. Everything in creation can hear the voice which is very loud and frightening and only mankind cannot hear it.

The reason why the sinful person says “Woe be unto it” rather than “Woe be unto me” is because the soul is damned and the person tries to distance himself from his own soul. The jinns also hear the terrifying scream and voice of this sinful person. When the person is questioned in the grave by the Angels and is punished, everyone except man and jinn hear the screams. But the jinns do not hear this scream when the body is being taken to the coffin. The reason why is because jinns are not too affected by the dead person talking but they are affected by punishment of the grave.

Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) doesn’t have a clear hadeeth in his saheeh which addresses the question in the chapter heading hence he uses this hadeeth. There is a clear hadeeth in ibn Majah in which this question is specifically addressed.

All the ulema of Islam agree that the funeral is to be carried by men, regardless of whether the deceased is male or female. The only exception is if there are no men and hence it is a necessity.

Chapter of hurrying with the funeral.

669. عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ, عَنِ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: (أَسْرِعُوا بِالْجَنَازَةِ, فَإِنْ تَكُ صَالِحَةً فَخَيْرٌ تُقَدّمُونَهَا إِليهِ, وَإِنْ يَكُ سِوَى ذلِكَ, فَشَرٌ تَضَعُونَهُ عَنْ رِقَابِكُمْ). رواه البخاري: 1315

669. Narrated Abu Hurairah رضى الله عنه : The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, Hurry up with the dead body for if it was righteous, you are forwarding it to a good thing and if it was otherwise (not righteous), then you are putting off an evil thing down your necks. (2:401O.B.)

We should hasten with the funeral, in both regards i.e. firstly, there should be no delay in preparation of the body e.g. bathing etc nor should there be a delay in the jinazah salah. Secondly, there should also be no delay in taking the body towards the grave for burial. One should not walk slowly.

The Shaykh highlighted that people neglect this and walk calmly with the funeral. One should walk very briskly but not run.

Unfortunately, today we delay the funeral awaiting the arrival of other people and family members or wait for a certain day.

If a good person has passed away, the soul does not want to remain behind but if the person that passed away is evil, then the soul may not want to leave the dunya but it is not a soul that one wants to be associated with. Thus, the ulema say do not keep the company of an evil person even in death. The person cannot influence you in any way but the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that it is evil that you are casting on your shoulders. If this is the effect of a dead body, then imagine the effect of evil people with whom we associate.

May Allah allow us to prepare and be mindful of death. The Shaykh reminded us that we should remember the terminator of all pleasures i.e. death.

The Shaykh narrated a beautiful Arabic poem at the end of the dars after mentioned the recent deaths of firstly his maternal aunt and also the niece of one of his students. Shaykh’s translation is below:

Oh Man! Prepare your provisions of Taqwa

For indeed you do not know when the night settles with its darkness if you will remain alive till Fajr

For there are many young men who spend their morning and evening and their days laughing and in jest even though whilst they were enjoying and laughing their shrouds had already been determined on Laylatul Qadr

And how many beautiful brides were there whose family beautified her for her groom

Even though both the souls of the groom and bride had already been seized on the night of Qadr

And how many little children were there whose small clothes had been sown

But those children never got to wear the clothes because their little bodies were entered into the darkness of the grave

And how many healthy people were there who died suddenly of no cause

And how many severely ill people were there who lived on for a very very long time