Saturday, December 27, 2008

Pattering of the Sandals

Assalamu alaikum, below are all my notes from Lesson 177 of the Book of Funerals from al Tajird al Sarih. In this lesson, hadeeth 672-674 were covered. This lesson was delivered by Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq on Friday 14th December 2007. May Allah preserve him and allow us to continue to benefit from his ilm.


باب: الصّلاَةُ عَلَى النّفَسَاء إِذَا مَاتَت فِي نِفَاسِهَا

Chapter 33 - Chapter of the prayer upon the bleeding woman if she dies in her postnatal bleeding.

672. عَنْ سَمُرَةَ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: صَلّيْتُ وَرَاءَ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى امْرَأَةٍ ماتَتْ في نِفَاسِهَا, فَقَامَ عَلَيْهَا وَسَطَهَا. رواه البخاري: 1331

672. Narrated Samura bin Jundab رضى الله عنه : I offered the funeral prayer behind the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم for a woman who had died during childbirth and he stood up by the middle of the coffin. (2:415O.B.)

Hadeeth 672 - We have covered this topic before in the Book of Purity and the Book of Menses. This is the same hadeeth and is repeated although it is not normally the custom of Imam az-Zabeidi to repeat hadeeth.

Sumara ibn Jundab (رضى الله عنه) says she prayed behind Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when he led the jinazah salah over a woman who had died during her postnatal bleeding.

If a woman passes away during postnatal bleeding it is equivalent to a woman dying during her menstrual period. As we are aware that there are certain states which render a man or woman impure; this is not impurity in a physical sense but ritual impurity. The man or woman is not considered to be unclean but it is ritual impurity. Though the person is forbidden to perform certain acts of worship it is not physical uncleanliness e.g. when a woman is menstruating.
The question posed by this hadeeth is what happens when a woman passes away when she is in a state of major impurity. Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) answers the question with the chapter heading; there is no difference. She is bathed as normal and the funeral prayer is performed.
Another question is where the Imam will stand when performing the jinazah salah for a woman. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) stood at the centre of the body of the deceased woman. The rulings according to the different schools of fiqh are below:

  • According to the Hanafi school of fiqh, there is no difference between the position at which the Imam will stand for the funeral of a man or a woman; the Imam will stand in line with the chest of the deceased.
  • According to the Maliki ulema, if the deceased is a man then the Imam will stand in line with the middle of the body i.e. at the waist. If the deceased is a woman, then the Imam will stand in line with the shoulders of the body.
  • According to the Shafi school of fiqh, if the deceased is a man then the Imam will stand in line with the head of the body. If the deceased is a lady, then the Imam will stand in line with the waist of the deceased.
  • According to the Hanbali ulema, the Imam will stand in line with the chest if the deceased is a man and at the waist if the deceased is a woman.

Thus, the scholars of the Hanbali and Shafi school of fiqh act literally on this hadeeth and regard the centre as being the waist. The Maliki school of fiqh based their ruling on other evidences and the practices of the people of Madinah. The Hanafi school of fiqh takes the centre to mean to chest not the waist.

These different positions are recommended but it is permissible for the Imam to stand anywhere.

Chapter 34 - Chapter of the Recitation of the Opening of the Book (Al-Fatiha) Upon the Funeral

باب: قِرَاءَةُ فَاتِحَةِ الكِتَابِ عَلَى الجَنَازَة

The meaning of the chapter heading is very clear – Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) raises the issue of reciting Surah Fatiha in the funeral prayer. This is a very famous question and Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul Haq mentioned that people have made it a very contentious issue. Furthermore, the respected Shaykh said that he hopes one of the greatest lessons we have learnt over the years that we have been reading and studying al Tajrid al sarih is the extremely wide variety and scope of difference of opinions and practice amongst the classical scholars, as well as the tabi’een and sahabah. This doesn’t suggest that every opinion is valid, rather the differences amongst the experts which are valid. There are valid reasons for these differences. There are of course parameters; the differences should have a valid basis in the Quran and hadeeth and furthermore they should be the views of the classical ulema; the experts.

673. عَنِ ابْنِ عَبّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا: أَنّهُ صَلّى عَلَى جَنَازَةٍ, فَقَرَأَ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ فَقَالَ: لِيَعْلَمُوا أَنّهَا سُنّةٌ. رواه البخاري: 1335

673. (Narrated Talha bin 'Abdullâh bin 'Auf: I offered the funeral prayer behind) Ibn 'Abbâs رضى الله عنهما , (and he) recited Al-Fâtiha and said, You should know that it (i.e. recitation of Al- Fâtiha) in the funeral prayer is the Sunna (legal way of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم ). (2:419O.B.)

Hadeeth 673 – According to this hadeeth, Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) once led the funeral prayer and recited Surah Al-Fatiha and said that it is sunnah. The questions posed by this hadeeth are that firstly is whether Abdulah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) is referring to the recitation of Surah al-Fatiha as being sunnah or something else? And, secondly, how did the people praying behind him know that he read Surah Al-Fatiha?

According to Hanafi school of fiqh, there is no recitation in the funeral prayer, neither of Surah al-Fatiha or of any other surah. The whole of the prayer is different to a normal salah. There are no rakaats, no sujud, and no recitation etc. Even the laws of purity differ – although one has to perform jinazah with wudhu, there is a difference with regards to tayumum. Normally, it is not permissible to perform tayumum if water is available within a certain radius of distance. There is an exception with jinazah salah. The Hanafi ulema say that if a person arrives when the funeral prayer is about to begin, and they are not in a state of wudhu, and fear that they will miss the jinazah prayer, then they can quickly perform tayumum even if water is available and then immediately perform tayumum. This view of the Hanafi school of fiqh is also shared by the Maliki ulema.

According to the Shafi and Hanbali schools of fiqh, it is wajib to recite to recite Surah al-Fatiha in the funeral prayer and if one does not recite it then it invalidates the salah.

The reason for this difference is because the Maliki/Hanafi ulema do not consider the funeral prayer to be normal prayer as stated above. Also, it should always be remembered that a single hadeeth cannot be taken in isolation.

Imam al-Nasai narrates a hadeeth in his sunan where the narrator says he prayed a funeral prayer behind Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) and he read Surah al-Fatiha after the first takbir and he also read another surah with it. He also read both of them loudly. The narrator took his hand after the salah and asked him why he did that. Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) said it is sunnah. From this narration we learn that it wasn’t a prevalent practice and hence the person felt compelled to ask Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) why he had read the surahs. Secondly, Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) read surah al-Fatiha with another surah; and this is not sunnah according to any of the scholars. Reciting the surahs loudly is not considered sunnah by any of the scholars. Thus, those that act upon the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) are not acting upon it fully as they do not read it loudly or read another surah. Although Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) says it is sunnah, it was not the standard practice hence the questioner asked him it. Furthermore, Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) called other things sunnah which none of the ulema regard as sunnah. The Shaykh gave a specific example from other narrations relating to the way in which one sits between the two sujood during salah. Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) sat in a certain position and called it sunnah whereas all the imams of fiqh say that that this particular position of sitting is makrooh. Another issue is with regard to ramal (walking fast vigorously with shoulders protruding and taking small steps giving a sense of strength and energy when performing tawaf); there is consensus among the scholars that ramal is a sunnah of any tawaf after which there is a sa’i. However, Abdullah ibn Abbas (رضى الله عنه) denied that this was a sunnah, although all the ulema of fiqh state that it is a sunnah.

When explaining the background of ramal, the Shaykh also mentioned that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) discouraged and forbade the Muslims from using the original name of Madinah i.e. Yathrib. Yathrib originally was an oasis city in the desert of Arabia but there were certain illnesses that were quite prevalent. The climate did not suit many people, and people would often fall ill when they visited. Even some of the sahabah fell ill when they first went there. Thus, Yathrib originally had a notorious reputation of illness and was known for a certain type of fever which struck many newcomers to Madinah. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made a du’a and the fever disappeared forever. The reason Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did ramal was to demonstrate to the pagans who were watching on the hilltops that the Muslims who had come for Hajj were strong and had not been afflicted with the fever. The Shaykh said that one can travel to any part of the world and fall ill, but people who travelled to Madinah even before modern amenities rarely complained of illness when travelling to Madinah.

The Hanafi ulema state that if a person does recite Surah al-Fatiha it does not invalidate their salah. However, the ulema state that one should read it with the intention of praise of Allah and du’a, rather than recitation.

All of the salah of jinazah is a du’a rather than being a prayer.

باب: المَيّتُ يَسمَعُ خَفقَ النّعَال

Chapter of the deceased that he hears the pattering of the sandals

674. عَنِ أَنَسِ بْنِ مالِكٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ, عَنِ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ: (الْعَبْدُ إِذَا وُضِعَ في قَبْرِهِ وَتَوَلّى وَذَهَبَ أَصْحَابُهُ, حَتّى إِنّهُ لَيَسْمَعُ قَرْعَ نِعَالِهِمْ, أَتَاهُ مَلَكانِ فَأَقْعَدَاهُ, فَيَقُولاَنِ لَهُ: ما كُنْتَ تَقُولُ فِي هذَا الرّجُلِ مُحَمّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَيَقُولُ: أَشْهَدُ أَنّهُ عَبْدُ اللهِ وَرَسُولُهُ, فَيُقَالُ: انْظُرْ إِلَى مَقْعَدِكَ مِنَ النّارِ, أَبْدَلَكَ اللهُ بِهِ مَقْعَدًا مِنَ الجَنّةِ). قَالَ النّبِيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم: (فَيَرَاهُما جَمِيعًا, وَأَمّا الْكافِرُ, أَوِ المُنَافِقُ: فَيَقُولُ: لاَ أَدْرِي, كُنْتُ أَقُولُ ما يَقُولُ النّاسُ. فَيُقَالُ: لاَ دَرَيْتَ وَلاَ تَلَيْتَ, ثُمّ يُضْرَبُ بِمِطْرَقَةٍ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ضَرْبَةً بَيْنَ أُذُنَيْهِ, فَيَصِيحُ صَيْحَةً يَسْمَعُهَا مَنْ يَلِيهِ إِلاّ الثّقَلَيْنِ). رواه البخاري: 1338

674. Narrated Anas رضى الله عنه : The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, When a human being is laid in his grave and his companions return and he even hears their footsteps, two angels come to him and make him sit and ask him: What did you use to say about this man, Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم ? He will say: I testify that he is Allâh's slave and His Messenger, then it will be said to him, 'Look at your place in the Hellfire. Allâh has changed for you a place in Paradise instead of it.' Then Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم added, The dead person will see both his places. But a disbeliever or a hypocrite will say to the angels, 'I do not know, but I used to say what the people used to say! It will be said to him, 'Neither did you know nor did you take the guidance (by following the Qur'ân),' then he will be hit with an iron hammer between his two ears, and he will cry and that cry will be heard by whatever near to him except human beings and jinns. (2:422O.B.)

Hadeeth 674 - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has mentioned the questioning in the grave on many occasions. In the famous sermon after the prayer of the eclipse, Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mentioned this. The hadeeth is in the Book of Knowledge (Hadeeth 76).

In that hadeeth, we learnt that Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that we will be tested in the graves similar to the great trial and tribulation of Dajjal. The believer will be questioned regarding the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم); the believer will say we embraced him and we followed him. He will say this thrice. It will then be said to him ‘Rest in peace. Indeed we have known you were certain and convinced of him’. As for the hypocrite or the one who is in doubt, he will say I hear people say something so I said it also.

This hadeeth (Hadeeth 674) is related to an entirely different situation which is also recorded by Imam Abu Dawud in his sunan as well as others. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) once entered an orchard when a scream was heard which frightened everyone. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) asked ‘Who is buried here?’. The companions replied that these are the old graves of the pagan Arabs that are here from before. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) then mentioned the words recorded in this hadeeth. Not everything is contained in a single narration so Shaykh mentioned points from the various narrations.

Shaykh translated the wording in this hadeeth as ‘striking of the sandals’ i.e. loudly. In the chapter heading, Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه) says ‘pattering of the sandals i.e. softly’. Why does Imam Bukhari say ‘pattering’ whereas the hadeeth says ‘striking’? There is another hadeeth related by others. For example, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (رحمة الله عليه) in his sunan relates the hadeeth where the wording is that the deceased hears the ‘pattering’ of their feet. As this hadeeth is not up to the stringent requirements of Imam Bukhari (رحمة الله عليه), he includes it in the chapter heading but not the hadeeth. When the people have departed far from the grave, the deceased still hears pattering of the footsteps. Obviously, the footsteps are much louder closer to the grave i.e. striking. Once the people have departed, two angels, Munkir and Nakir come to the deceased and they sit him up. They then ask the questions. For the believer, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will show him his seat in the fire of Jahannum that was reserved for him and then the angels will say to him that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) has replaced that seat with a seat in paradise. The veil will be removed and the believer will be shown his place in paradise.

As for the hypocrite and the ones in doubt and others mentioned in the ahadetth, the person will be hesitant and will speak unconvincingly when asked the questions in the grave. The angels will say to him neither did you understand nor did you follow someone of understanding. The person will then be struck with an iron of hammer on the forehead. It will be such a punishment and on each blow the person will let out a scream which everyone will hear except men and jinn. He will also be shown the place of Jannah that he could have obtained first and then the place of Jahannum where he is destined to go.

We learn about the punishment of the grave in this hadeeth. This will be elaborated upon more when the chapter about punishment of the grave is covered.

In order to allow us to understand life in another dimension, Shaykh explained that the Prophet has used examples that we can understand and associate with. The akhirah is a completely different dimension.

Shaykh ended this lesson by talking about bereavement and how his aunt had recently passed away and also that one of the regular attendees of dars had recently suffered the bereavement of his father. Shaykh said this is the reality. May Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) grant them Jannat-ul-Firdaus and save us all from the punishment of the grave.

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